First Metatarsal

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Published on October 8th 2022 by

What is the First Metatarsal

The first or 1st metatarsal is the bone located just behind the proximal phalanx of the big toe. It is the thickest, shortest, and strongest of the five metatarsals.

Anatomy and Landmarks

Being a long bone, it is divided into a head, body or shaft, and base. The head is the part on the side of the proximal phalanx, while the body is the middle part. The bone is somewhat flat, giving rise to two distinct surfaces, plantar and dorsal.

First Metatarsal


There are usually no articular surfaces on the sides of the base. The only articular facet in this area is on the lateral side, where an oval facet articulates with the second metatarsal. The bone is also in direct contact with the medial cuneiform bone through an articulation on the proximal side.

Distally, it articulates with the first proximal phalanx (First metatarsal-phalangeal joint). There are two distinct grooved facets for the two sesamoid bones to articulate and glide with movement.

Muscle Attachment

  • The plantar surface at the base has a rough oval tuberosity where the fibularis longus muscle’s tendon attaches.
  • The tibialis anterior muscle also inserts to the base of the first metatarsal
  • The medial side of the bone is where the lateral portion of the 1st dorsal interosseus muscle originaltes from.


    1. Radiographic Anatomy of the First Metatarsal –
    2. Metatarsal Bones –
    3. Metatarsals –  
    4. Anatomy of the Foot –

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